Anorectal surgery covers a wide spectrum of surgery. Diagnostic workup of anorectal disease is predicated on clinical examination with basic functional tests followed by more elaborate diagnostic tests. Since the incidence of anorectal disorders increases with age, more patients will present in outpatient clinics, thus underlining the relevance of this subject .
Anorectal Surgery types of surgery –
What is Anal Fistula?
Anal fistula is type of a chronic abnormal communication between the epithelial surface of the anal canal and typically the perinatal skin.An anal fistula are often described as a narrow tunnel with its internal opening in the anal canal and its external opening in the skin near the anus.Anal fistula commonly occur in people with a history of anal abscesses. They can form when anal abscesses don’t heal properly.
What is Plies?
Hemorrhoids, also called piles, are vascular structures within the anal canal. In their normal state, they’re cushions that help with stool control. They become a disease when swollen or inflamed; the unqualified term “hemorrhoid” is often used to refer to the disease.The signs and symptoms of hemorrhoids depend on the type present.Internal hemorrhoids often end in painless, bright red rectal bleeding when defecating. External hemorrhoids often end in pain and swelling within the area of the anus. If bleeding occurs it is usually darker. Symptoms frequently recover after a couple of days.A skin tag may remain after the healing of an external hemorrhoid.
What is Anal Fissure?
An anal fissure may be a break or tear within the skin of the anal canal. Anal fissures could also be noticed by bright red anal bleeding on toilet tissue and undergarments, or sometimes within the toilet. If acute they’re painful after defecation, but with chronic fissures, pain intensity often reduces. Anal fissures usually extend from the anal opening and are usually located posterity within the mid line, probably due to the relatively unsupported nature and poor perfusion of the anal wall in that location. Fissure depth could also be superficial or sometimes right down to the underlying sphincter . Untreated fissures develop a hood like skin tag (sentinel piles) which cover the fissure and cause discomfort and pain.
What is Prolapse?
A prolapse is a condition during which organs subside or slip out of place. It is used for organs protruding through the vagina, rectum, or for the misalignment of the valves of the guts . A spinal disc herniation is additionally sometimes called “disc prolapse”. Prolapse means “to fall out of place”, from the Latin prolabi meaning “to fall out”.
What are the Pre-Surgery Instruction and Post Surgery Instructions for Anal Fistula,Piles,Fissure,Prolapse?
Pre surgery instructions:
- Some preoperative investigations are required before surgery.
- Follow your surgeon instructions for any prescribed medications.
- You may be asked to stop taking medicines like aspirin and all aspirin containing medications for a minimum of five days before surgery.
- One day before surgery, the patient is typically kept NPO (nothing to be taken orally except medicines prescribed) after midnight
Post surgery instructions:
- The patient is kept under observation for 2-4 hours then shifted to the space .
- Patient is allowed to drink oral liquids on an equivalent day of surgery.
- The patient is allowed to maneuver on its own and visit the rest room on an equivalent day of the surgery.
- Generally the patient is discharged on the subsequent day of the surgery.
- The patient is suggested to go again after one week when the dressings are removed.
- Patient should avoid wetting the dressings unless they’re waterproof. After the removal of dressing, patient can have normal bath with soap and water.
- The patient is advised to adhere to healthy eating habits, use of laxatives in the early postoperative period and Kegel exercises to tone the pelvic muscles.
- On discharge, a discharge summary with the advised medication is handed over to the patient alongside the date of the primary follow up appointment.
- Regular follow up is advised.