A Kidney transplant surgery is a type of surgery where a healthy kidney from a living or deceased donor is transplanted into an individual whose kidneys not function properly.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located on a both side of the spine slightly below the skeletal structure . Each is about the size of a fist. Their main function is to filter and take away waste, minerals and fluid from the blood by producing urine.
When your kidneys lose this filtering ability, harmful levels of fluid and waste accumulate in your body, which may raise your vital sign and end in renal failure (end-stage kidney disease). End-stage renal disease occurs when the kidneys have lost about 90% of their ability to function normally.
Common causes of end-stage kidney disease include:
- Chronic, uncontrolled high blood pressure
- Chronic glomerulonephritis — an inflammation and eventual scarring of the small filters within your kidneys (glomeruli)
- Polycystic kidney disease
People with end-stage renal disease got to have waste faraway from their bloodstream via a machine (dialysis) or a kidney transplant to remain alive.
Before the procedure :-
Finding a match –
A kidney donor are often living or deceased, related or unrelated to you. Your transplant team will consider several factors when evaluating whether a donor kidney are going to be an honest match for you.
Tests to work out whether a donated kidney could also be suitable for you include:
- Blood typing :- It’s preferable to urge a kidney from a donor whose blood group matches or is compatible together with your own. Blood-type incompatible transplants also are possible but require additional medical treatment before and after transplant to scale back the danger of organ rejection. These are known as ABO incompatible kidney transplants.
- Tissue typing :- If your blood group is compatible, subsequent step may be a diagnostic test test called human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing. This test compares genetic markers that increase the likelihood the transplanted kidney will last an extended time. A good match means it’s less likely that your body will reject the organ.
- Crossmatch :- The third and final matching test involves mixing alittle sample of your blood with the donor’s blood within the lab. The test determines whether antibodies in your blood will react against specific antigens within the donor’s blood. A negative crossmatch means they’re compatible and your body isn’t as likely to reject the donor kidney. Positive crossmatch kidney transplants are also possible but require additional medical treatment before and after the transplant to scale back the danger of your antibodies reacting to the donor organ.
Additional factors your transplant team may consider find the foremost appropriate donor kidney for you include matching age, kidney size and infection exposure.
During the procedure :-
Kidney transplants are performed with General anesthesia , so you are not awake during the procedure. The surgical team monitors your pulse , vital sign and blood oxygen level throughout the procedure.
During the surgery:
- The surgeon makes an incision within the lower a part of one side of your abdomen and places the new kidney into your body. Unless your own kidneys are causing complications like high vital sign , kidney stones, pain or infection, they’re left in their own space .
- The blood vessels of the new kidney are attached to blood vessels within the lower a part of your abdomen, just above one among your legs.
- The new kidney’s ureter — the tube that links the kidney to the bladder — is connected to your bladder.
After the procedure :-
After your kidney transplant, you can expect to:
- Spend several days to every week within the hospital. Doctors and nurses monitor your condition within the hospital’s transplant recovery area to observe for signs of complications. Your new kidney will make urine like your own kidneys did once they were healthy. Often this starts immediately. In other cases it’s going to take several days, and you’ll need temporary dialysis until your new kidneys begin to function properly. Expect soreness or pain round the incision site while you’re healing. Most kidney transplant recipients can return to figure and other normal activities within eight weeks after transplant. No lifting objects weighing quite 10 pounds or exercise aside from walking until the wound has healed (usually about six weeks after surgery).
- Have frequent checkups as you continue recovering. After you allow the hospital, close monitoring is important for a couple of weeks to see how well your new kidney is functioning and to form sure your body is not rejecting it. You may need blood tests several times every week and have your medications adjusted within the weeks following your transplant. During this point , if you reside in another town, you’ll got to make arrangements to remain near the transplant center.
- Take medications the rest of your life. You’ll take variety of medicines after your kidney transplant. Drugs called immuno suppressants (anti-rejection medications) help keep your immune system from attacking and rejecting your new kidney. Additional drugs help reduce the danger of other complications, like infection, after your transplant.